On December 6, 1947, violence erupted in Ajmer, India, sparked by an argument between Hindu refugees from Sindhi and local Muslims at Dargah Bazaar. In mid-December, violence erupted again in Ajmer, with stabbings, looting and arson, resulting in mostly Muslim victims.  Many Muslims fled through the Thar Desert to Sindh, Pakistan.  This triggered further anti-Hindu unrest in Hyderabad, Sindh. On 6 January, anti-Hindu riots took place in Karachi, which claimed an estimated 1,100 lives.   The arrival of Hindu refugees from Sindhi in the northern Gujarat town of Godhra in March 1948 led to further riots that led to a further emigration of Muslims from Godhra to Pakistan.  These events triggered the great exodus of Hindus. An estimated 1.2 -1.4 million Hindus emigrated to India, mainly by boat or train.  Rural Sikhs on a long train of carts bound for India. 1947.
Menon`s ingenuity during this period was noticed by Sardar Patel, who became Deputy Prime Minister of India in 1947. Patel and Nehru initially intended to wait until the end of their term as Governor General. An insurrection of Adivasi in Orissa in late 1947, however, imposed his hand.  In December 1947, the princes of the East India Agency and the Chhattisgarh Agency were summoned to a nightly meeting with Menon, where they were persuaded to sign, effective 1 January 1948, merger agreements for the integration of their states into Orissa, the central provinces and Bihar.  Later that year, 66 states of Gujarat and deccan were merged into Bombay, including the major states of Kolhapur and Baroda. Other small states were merged with Madras, East Punjab, West Bengal, the United States and Assam.  However, not all states that have signed merger agreements have been integrated into the provinces. Thirty states of the former Punjab Hill States Agency, located near the international border and having signed merger agreements, have been integrated into Himachal Pradesh, a separate entity directly managed by the Centre as Chief Commissioner`s Province for security reasons.  In the elections in India in 1936-1937, Muhammad Ali Jinnah`s Muslim League attempted to use Muslim aspirations and gained attachment to MIM leader Nawab Bahadur Yar Jung, who campaigned for an Islamic state centered on Nizam, the sultan rejecting all demands for democracy.